|History must bear America
peoples in mind.
Ernesto Che Guevara.
First of two
interventions in the UN General Assembly IX meeting
December 11, 1964
Mister President, Misters Delegates, the Delegation of Cuba in this Assembly has the pleasure in first place, of greeting the entry of three new nations in the set of those that discuss the world problems. We greet then, in the persons of their Presidents and First Ministers, the peoples of Zambia, Malawi and Malta and we pray so that these countries enter to join since the first moment the group of not aligned nations that fight against imperialism, colonialism and neocolonialism.
We express our happiness also to the President of this Assembly, whose investiture with so high commission has a singular meaning, since it is the reflex of this new historical phase of extraordinary victories for Africa peoples, until yesterday subdued to imperialism's colonial system and that today, in their vast majority, in the legitimate exercise of their free determination, have become sovereign states. It has arrived colonialism's last hour and million inhabitants in Africa, Asia and Latin America arise to conquer a new life and impose their undeleteable right to self-determination and to the independent development of their nations. We wish you, Mister President, the best luck in the tasks you have been assigned by the member countries .
Cuba comes to expose its position on the most important controversy points and will make it with full sense of the responsibility that the use of this forum demands, but at the same time answering to the indispensable will of speaking with total honesty and clarity.
We express the desire of seeing this Assembly encouraging happily the work and going forward; we wanted that the Commissions began their work without fainting at the first confrontation. Imperisalism wants to transform this meeting into a vain oratory forum, and it does not want that the world serious problems are solved; we should prevent it. This Assembly should not be recalled in the future only by the number IX that distinguishes it. Our efforts are for the attainment of this objective.
We establish that it is our right and our duty act in this way, since our country is one of the constant friction points, one of the places in those which the principles that support the small countries rights to their sovereignty are challenged each day and each minute and, at the same time, it is one of the trenches of world freedom, a trench at a few steps from United States imperialism, and that shows with its action, with its daily example, that peoples can be liberated and they can be remain free in the current conditions of humankind. Undoubtedly there is today an increasingly strong socialistic field, provided of dissuasion weapons more potent. But for surviving there are necessary also other conditions: to maintain internal cohesion, to have faith in the same destination and to possess an irreducible decision of fight until the death in defense of the country and the revolution. For Cuba these are the conditions, Misteres Delegates.
Among all the problems that should be dealed by this Assembly, one of those that has had a great meaning for us and of which we believe it's necessary to say a definition that removes doubt, it is the one of the peaceful coexistence between states with various socio-economic regimes. The walked steps by the world in this field are outstandings; still the imperialsm - specially the United States one- has the pretext of spread the idea that peaceful coexistence will be an exclusive use of Earth's large powers. We express here the same position held by our President in Cairo and that had to be the Statement base of the Second Conference of Not Aligned Countries' State and Government Chiefs: the fact that peaceful coexistence should not be limited only to the powerfuls, if world peace is the purpose. Peaceful coexistence must be practiced between all the states, independently of their importance, of their historical relationships that were bequeathed to it in precedence and by the problems between some of them in certain moments.
Actually, the type of peaceful coexistence we long is not respected in a large number of cases. Cambodia kingdom, only to maintain a neutral position and by not yield to United States imperialism intentions, has been target of any kind of attacks and brutal launchings from the bases yankees have in Southern Vietnam. Laos, divided country, has been too object of any type of imperialist agressions; its people, murdered from sky; Geneve signed agreements, violated, and a part of the territory in constant danger of being attacked by the imperialist forces. Vietnam Democratic Republic, which knows all these agression stories as a few peoples on Earth, has seen yet its borders raped, has seen how the bombardment and hunt planes shot their facilities, how the United States war planes, violating its territorial waters, attacked their ports. In this moment, over Vietnam Democratic Republic there's the threat that the United States warriors could openly extend on its territory and on its people the war that for so many years have been performed against Southern Vietnam people. The Soviet Union and People's Republic of China have seriously reprimanded the United States. We are in front of a situation in which world peace is in danger; not only, million of human lives of this Asia zone constantly threated, since it depends on United States invader caprices.
Peaceful coexistence, furthermore, has been also hardly tested in Cyprus, under the pressures of the Turkish government and NATO, that have forced the Cypriot people and government to perform a vigorous and heroic defense of their sovereignty.
In all the countries, imperialism tries to impose its version of peaceful coexistence: the oppressed peoples, in alliance with the socialistic field, are those who should say how the real coexistence will be, and it is an obligation of United Nations to support them.
It is also necessary to clarify that the peaceful coexistence concept must be well defined, not only inasmuch as it has to do with the reports between sovereign states. As Marxists, we have always supported that the peaceful coexistence between nations does not imply the existence of oppressors and oppressed. The right to full independence, against any form of colonial hardship, is, furthermore a principle proclaimed within this Organization. By this reason we express our solidarity to the peoples of Angola and Mozambique, massacred by the offense of requesting their own freedom, and we are ready to help them depending upon our forces, cohesively with the Cairo Statement.
We express our solidarity to the Puerto Rico people and its leader, Pedro Albizu Campos who, for the umpteenth time in an hypocrisy act, has been released at the age of 69 years, almost speechless, paralytic, after spending all his life in jail. Albizu Campos is the symbol of the yet rebellious and indomitable America. Years and years in prison, pressures almost intolerable in jail, mental tortures, loneliness, the total isolation from his people and his family, conqueror's insolence and his scars in the land that saw him born: nothing achieves to defeat his will. The Delegation of Cuba, in the name of its people, presents an admiration and gratitude homage to a patriot who gives gloss and dignity to our America.
The United States have obstinated for years to transform again Puerto Rico into a hybrid culture showcase; Spanish language with English inflections, Spanish language with sifted on the back in order to incline it before the yankee soldier. Puerto Rican soldiers have been used as cannon fodder in the empire wars, as in Korea, and furthermore to fire against their own brothers, as in the massacre perpetrated by the United States army some months ago, against the defenseless people of Panama, one of the most recent crimes of the yankee imperialism.
Nevertheless, these enormous violations to its will and its historical destination, the people of Puerto Rico has preserved its culture, its Latin feature, its national feelings, that demonstrate themselves the indomitable vocation to independence existing in the mass of the Latin American island.
We should also warn that the peaceful coexistence principle is not compatible with the right to cheat people will, as it happens in the case of the British Guyana, where the prime minister Cheddy Jagan government has been victim of a whole series of pressures and maneuvers and where the moment of conceding independence has been replanted, in order to find a way to avoid the popular aspirations and assure the docility of a different government to the current one, fruit of the intrigue, which will be conceded a neutered freedom to this chunk of American land. Whether the Guayana ways will be to obtain the freedom, Cuba expresses its militant and moral support to its people .
We must add, moreover, that the islands of Guadalupe and Martinica are figting for their own time autonomy, without event, and this things state should not to continue.
Another time, we lift our voice to denounce to the world what is going on in South Africa; apartheid brutal policy is applied in front of the eyes of the nations of the world. Africa peoples are forced to support the fact that in that continent the superiority of a race over another will be still officially recognized, that the committed murders in the name of the racial superiority will be unpunished. United Nations will not make anything to prevent it?
I would want to refer specifically about Congo's a painful case, the only one in world's modern history, that indicates how peoples rights can be offended with the most absolute impunity, with the most insolent cynicism. Since the beginning, Congo's immense wealth are seen, that the imperialistic powers want to maintain under their control. In the intervention performed in occasion of his first visit to United Nations, companion Fidel Castro said that all the problem of coexistence between nations reduced to the problem of the improper appropriation of others wealth, and made the following affirmation: "Rapine philosophy must end and war philosophy will end". But the depredation philosophy has not already ended, but it continues stronger than ever, and by this, the same forces that served United Nations to commit the assassination of Lumumba, today murder thousands of Congoleses in the name of the white race defense.
How is it possible to forget the way in which Patrice Lumumba's hope on United Nations was betrayed? How will we be able to forget the intrigues and maneuvers that followed after the occupation of that country by United Nations troops, under whose patronages they unpunished accomplished the assassination of the great African patriot? How will we be able to forget, misters delegates, that who subdues to UN authority in Congo, and not properly by patriotic reasons but by reason of the struggle between imperialists, was Moses Ciombe, who started the secession of Katanga with the Belgian support?
And, how to justify, how to explain that, at the end of any UN action, Ciombe, hunted by the Katanga, becomes Congo's mater and sir? Who could deny the sad paper that imperialists forced UN to perform? Summarizing: it has been activated a whole showy appliance to avoid Katanga secession and today, the Katanga in the power, Congo's wealth in the imperialist hands... and the expenses should be paid by noble nations. A good business for the war merchants! Because of this the Government of Cuba supports Soviet Union's just position, that rejects to pay this crime expenses.
To crown it all, we're repproached for these last actions that have filled the entire world with indignation .
Who are the authors? Belgian parachutists, transported by United States planes from English bases. It comes to the mind that a few years ago, practically yesterday, a small Europe country, working and civilized, the Belgium kingdom, was invaded by the Hitlerite hordes; our conscience was embittered upon knowing that this people was slaughtered by the German imperialism and we saw it with affection. But this other face of the imperialistic medal was unknown for many. Perhaps they are sons of Belgian patriots, died in the defense of their own country freedom, those who kill coolly to thousands of Congoleses in the name of the white race as well as they were subdued to the German receipt because their Aryan race percentage was not sufficiently high.
Our free eyes are opened on new horizons and are capable of seeing what yesterday our colonial slaves condition prevented us to observe: what " western civilization" hides under its showy masquerade is a hyenas and jackals reality. Because we can not call in a different manner those who are led to comply with so "humanitarian" actions in Congo. Carnivorous animal that nourishes from defenseless peoples; this is what the man is reduced by imperialism, this is what distinguishes the "white" imperial.
All the free men of the world should be prepared to avenge the crime of Congo.
Perhaps many of those soldiers, transformed into subhumans of the imperialistic machine, think in good faith about defending the rights of a race superior; but in this Assembly the majority is constituted by peoples that have a tanned skin by various suns, colored by various pigments, and who have perfectly understood that the differences between human beings do not consider the color of the skin, but by the type of property of production means.
The Cuban Delegation sends its greeting to the peoples of Southern Rhodesia and Southwestern Africa, oppressed by white settlers minorities. In Basutoland, in Beciuania and in Swaziland, in the French Somalia, in the Arabic people of Palestine, in Aden and in the protectorates, in Oman and in all the peoples in conflict against imperialism or colonialism, it supports them. It is wished furthermore to achieve a fair solution to the conflict between the friend republic of Indonesia and Malaysia.
Mister President, one of the fundamental topics of this Assembly is the general and complete disarmament. We express our agreement inasmuch as it refers to a general and complete disarmament; we advocate, furthermore, the total destruction of thermonuclear bombs and we support the proposal to the summoning of a conference of all the world countries that accomplish these peoples aspirations. Our prime minister has admonished, during his intervention before this Assembly, that the weapon career has always led to the war. There are new atomic powers and the possibilities of an encounter increase.
We support that this conference is necessary to arrive to the total destruction of experiments. At the same time, it's necessary to clearly establish the obligation for all the countries to observe the current frontiers of the various states; of not exercising any aggressive action, not even with the conventional weapons.
Upon joining us to the voices of all the countries in the world that request us the general and complete disarmament, the destruction of all the atomic arsenal, the absolute cease in the manufacturing of new thermonuclear bombs and any kind of atomic experiments, we consider necessary to outline that nations' territorial integrity must be also respected and it must be stopped the armed arm of imperialism that it is not less dangerous by the fact of using conventional weapons. Those who have murdered thousands of defenseless Congoleses citizens, contested by imperialism, who have provoked so many deaths.
Even if the accomplishment of the sponsored measures here it would be useless say it, it is good to specify that we do not will be able to adhere us to any nuclear-free regional agreement until the United States supports aggressive bases in our territory, in Puerto Rico, in Panama and in other American states, in which they support its right to install, unrestricted, conventional or nuclear weapons. Without going on about the last OAS resolution against our country, that would be assaulted invoking the Rio Agreement, makes necessary the possession of all the defensive means within our reach.
We believe that if the Conference about we have refered achieved these goals, a difficult matter, unfortunately, would be the most important in Humankind history. To assure the event it would be indispensable the pretension of the People's Republic of China that would make obligatory the accomplishment of a fact of this type. But it would be much more simple for the peoples of the world to recognize the undeniable truth that the People's Republic of China exists, whose leaders are the only representatives of their people, and to attribute them the stamp that waits them, currently usurped by the group that leads with the United States support, the province of Taiwan.
The problem of the Chinese representation in the United Nations can not be considered in no way as if it was about with a new entry in the Organization; it is instead about restoring its legitimate rights to the People's Republic of China. We should vigorously refute the conspiracy of "two Chinas". Ciang Kai-Shek's group can not continue being represented in the United Nations. It is about, we repeat it, of expelling the usurpers and of activating the legitimate representatives of the Chinese people. We warn, furthermore, against the government of the United States' insistence in presenting the problem of China's legit representation in United Nations as an "important issue", with the purpose of imposing the extraordinary quorum consistent in two-thirds of the present members and with right to vote.
The entry of the Popular Republic China to the United Nations is indeed an important matter for the entire world; but not for the internal mechanism of UN, for the one which must represent a simple procedure issue. In this manner justice would be done; but it would be even more important than to do justice, to demonstrate by once that this august Assembly has eyes to see, ears to listen, an own language to speak, an accurate criterion to take certain decisions.
The diffusion of atomic weapons between NATO countries and, specially, the possession of these massive destruction instruments by the German Federal Republic, would move away more the possibility of an agreement on disarmament, the one which is narrowly linked to that of Germany's peaceful reunification. Until it is not achieved a clear commitment, it should be recognized the existence of two Germanys, the Democratic Republic and the German Federal Republic. The German problem can not be solved if it is not with the direct participation in the negotiations of the German Democratic Republic, with full rights.
We will make only a reference to the topic of the economic development and the international trade, to which the agenda reserves a wide space. Precisely this year was carried out the Geneva Conference, in the one which different problems related to those aspects of the international relationships were faced. Our delegation warnings and provisions have been fully confirmed, unfortunately for the economically dependent countries.
We only want to recall that, inasmuch as it refers to Cuba, the United States have not fulfilled the explicit recommendations formulated by that Conference and, recently, the United States government has vetoed the medicine shipments to Cuba, cutting definitely the humanitarian mask with the one which it had tried to hide the aggressive nature of the blockade against the people of Cuba. On the other hand, we want to repeat again that the colonial obstacles that hinder peoples development are not expressed only through any type of political relationships. The called deterioration of the exchange rate is not anything else than the result of the unequal exchange between unequal raw material countries and industrial countries that master markets and impose the illusory justice of the values exchange. Until the economically dependent peoples do not liberate from the capitalistic markets and, constitute a solid block with the socialistic countries, they won't stablished new relationships between exploitatives and exploited, there will not be a solid economic development, and in some situations there will be a recession, and the weak countries will return to fall under the political dominance by imperialists and colonialistas.
Anyway, misters delegates, it is necessary for you to known clearly that in the Caribbean zone there are maneuvers and aggression preparations in progress against Cuba. On the Nicaragua coasts, specially, but also in Costa Rica, in the Panama Channel zone, in Puerto Rico's Vieques Islands, in Florida, with all probability in other points of the United States territory and maybe also in Honduras, Cuban of other nationalities mercenaries are being trained and and not with peaceful goals.
After a clamorous scandal, the government of Costarica, people say, has ordered the dismantlement of all the training fields of Cuban exiles existent in that country. Nobody could say if by an sincere attitude or by a simple disuassion maneuver, due to the danger that the mercenaries training in that Central American country could committ any damage. We hope that it has a clear conscience about the real xexistence of aggression bases, as we have been denouncing since time ago, and it is reflected on the international responsibility that has the government of a country that authorizes or favors the training of mercenaries to attack Cuba.
Is timely to announce that the news on the mercenaries training in different points of the Caribbean and the participation to such initiative by the United States government, is reported as a natural matter in the United States newspapers. As we know, nobody in Latin America has officially protestee by this. Something that shows us the cynicism with which the United States handle their serfs. The acute OAS ministers of Foreigns, that had eyes to see Cuban problems and to find "indisputable" tests on the yankees weapons found by Venezuela, do not see the aggression preparations that are so visible in the United States, as they did not listen President Kennedy's voice who explicitly declared aggressor of Cuba in Playa Girón. In certain instances it is considered a blindness provoked by the hatred of the Latin American countries dominant classes against our Revolution; in other, still sadder, it is the result of Mammon's brilliant splendour.
As everybody knows, after the terrible facts known as the Caribbean crisis, the United States subscribed with the Soviet Union some dealings that peaked with the withdrawal of a type of weapons that the continuous aggressions of that country - as the mercenaries assault to Playa Girón and the invasion threats to our fatherland - had obligated us to install in Cuba as an act of legit and unavoidable defense.
The United States wanted, furthermore, that United Nations surveyed our territory, something that we reject in the deepest way, since Cuba does not recognize the right to United States, neither any other in the world, to decide about the type of armaments that it can possess within its frontiers.
In this sense we could join only to multilateral agreements with equal obligations for all the parts. As Fidel Castro said: "Until ther is the sovereignty concept as prerrogative of the independent nations and peoples, we will not accept the exclusion of our people by this right. Until the world understand these principles and these may have universal value, because they are universally accepted and consecrated by the peoples, we will not accept none of these rights".