Biography of Efrén Rebolledo.

Actopan, Hidalgo, México, 1877 - Madrid, Spain, 1929

He was born in one of Mexico's poorest communities, characterized by an outstanding notable exploitation.

Rebolledo's cultural life arises when he wins a scolarship of the Scientific and Literary Institute of Pachuca (capital city of the State of Hidalgo, in the center zone of the country). From there he would join the diplomatic service, he is secretary of Federico Gamboa in Guatemala and contributor of Revista Moderna. He travels to Asia and lies in Japan seven years, and one in China.

Once he comes back to Mexico, being deputy, is characterized by his defense of the Mezquital inhabitants. Together with Enrique González Martínez and Ramón López Velarde, directs magazine. He returns to diplomacy in Norway, France, the Netherlands and Spain.

Efrén Rebolledo is author of seven several-times remade poem books recasted in Joyelero (1922) and also of an important prose work in which he emphasizes his short novel Salamandra (1919). He incorporated into modernism topics and stages that other poets knew only in theoretical way but with those which he had direct contact, thanks to his stay in Asia and Scandinavia. However, Rebolledo's authentic originality is in the sonnets of Caro Victrix ("Victorious Meat", 1916). Precisely, Xavier Villaurrutia wrote in 1939 that such sonnets were "the most intensive and up until now best sexual love poems of the Mexican poetry". After the publication of "Caro Vitrix" in 1916 it is not difficult to imagine the reaction that this provoked in a "puritan" society.

He died in Madrid, being Secretary of Legation and with about 30 years in the service. In 1968, Luis Mario Schneider compiled Rebolledos's Complete Works, and in 1979 he gathered together in a volume Caro Victrix and Salamandra.


Most recent revision: April 27, 2002.